(Pls link https://www.transcend.org/tms/2014/09/indias-pm-modi-twards-worlds-top-leader-keeping-confidence-with-neighbors/)
SituationUpdate 113 September 18, 2014
India’s PM Modi towards World’s Top Leader Keeping Confidence with Neighbors
The ‘much awaited’ and ‘much admired' Indian Prime Minister Sri Narendra Modi was heartily welcomed in the Himalayan country Nepal during his two days visit in Kathmandu on August 3th-4th, 2014. Modi’s 42-minute long inspiring and historic address in the Nepali language before switching back to Hindi, in the Legislative Parliament cum Constituent Assembly on August 3 has not only changed the hearts and minds in all track I, II and III in the pyramid of Nepali people, but also has initiated discussion or argument within and amongst them, who perceived Indian power and politics suspiciously in the past. Even progressive academics stated that his speech was no less than a titanic pathfinder of a new milestone in the history of Nepo-India bilateral friendship relations. His honest deliverance and assurance of better days ahead removed some of the decades-old accumulated cobwebs of suspicion. Modi is trying to prove himself not only a popular leader in the 21st century, but a pragmatic philosopher, executive head of world’s largest democratic country India. Modi is trying to treat all the neighbouring Independent and sovereign states friendly rather than establishing himself as a hegemon in the region.
Nepal is still in Modimaya mode, which has become the talk of the town. Parties are initiating dialogue on his proposals and appointing and sending expert team to India to conclude Power Trade Agreement (PTA); the coalition Government has started collecting suggestions to strengthen bilateral relations; civil societies are granting their inputs; the media widely providing a space of his visit, the authors are analyzing his public and private utterances; and others abuzz through social media, for instance, Twitter. Nepali people expressing their optimism that the visit will pave a way for a new beginning in Nepo-India bilateral. Dr. Prakash Chandra Lohani, former Nepalese Finance and Foreign Minister writes, “With Modi’s coming to power in India, hopes are soaring high in Kathmandu”. Modi has become the first high-level visitor since the former PM Inder Kumar (IK) Gujaral on June 5th-7th, 1997. However, Nepalese President and Prime Ministers visited India several occasions during these periods.
Why does anti-Indian sentiment prevail in Nepal, particularly at the people’s level? There are numbers of reasons. Firstly, media plays an imminent role in this aspect. Media reports shows that India has done various wrongs against Nepalese People , from border encroachment to land inundation in monsoon. Secondly, sometimes atrocities have been inflicted on the Nepalese people by Indian authority, who forecefully trying to enter into Nepal, without official permission. Thirdly, there had been a high mobility of Indian authorities during the formation of Nepalese Government in the past. Even the Indian Embassy has played the dominant role in the promotion and transfer of senior civil servants and security forces in Nepal.
The paper mostly reflects on Modi’s address in the legislative-parliament on August 3, 2014. Nepal suffers from political, physical and socio-cultural infrastructures. But, Modi has shown his interest in human security, bilateral relations and natural resources. The paper also tries to analyze the problems Nepal encounter being surrounded by India on three sides and by China on one side. The concepts of geopolitics, security concerns, co-existence, unity and sovereignty and their effects on bi-lateral relations enlighten this study. Nepali people willingly wait to see whether Modi’s commitment and doctrine would pursue merely a cosmetic or real change, and determined fast-track change in the days to come. The following human security measures may help to understand his synergy, promises and transformation.
Freedom from Fear
Freedom from fear is one of the dimensions of fundamental human security. People of both countries have fear, suspicion and misunderstanding regarding various issues. For instance, Nepal has been occupied with fear, suspicion, and misunderstanding due to the proliferation of Tarai-Madhes movement and its slogan “One Madhes One State”; socio-cultural leaders back by Indian power, property and politics; India’s vested interest to control Nepal’s natural resources; Nepalese humiliation in India, etc . Wheras on the other hand, India has expressed its feeling that Nepal is being controlled by China, less opportunity to invest India on hydropower, fake Indian currency supplies to India via Nepal, and Nepal being a shelter of Muslim fundamentalists.
K V Rajan, Former Indian Ambassador to Nepal said, “Pakistani activities in and through Nepal, migration, smuggling of narcotics and arms, terrorism, human trafficking, traditional cross-border trade and investment, regulation of the open border, development of border infrastructure and, above all, human insecurity have emerged as the urgent priorities” . He further stated that China emerging as a superpower is no longer the only security concern in the sub-region, may create problems for India making Nepal a close friend of it. Another Former Indian Ambassador to Nepal Rakesh Sood said, “India is where Nepalis come to study, work, spend holidays, plan weddings, invest in a second home; yet, India is also blamed for being insensitive, for meddling in Nepal’s internal affairs and often, for taking Nepal for granted”.
Nepalese are being humiliated in the course of their works in India and their money being confisticated by Indian security personnel and other criminal groups, on their return to Nepal. If returnees denied providing the bribe, they torture them mercilessly. There have been frequent reports that border security force enters into Nepal without permission and beat village people threatening them, if they protest against the atrocities done by them at their territories. A few cases of arrest to Nepali by them are also reported. The custom security personnel also harassed Nepali while being returned home buying some needed goods and food for their family purpose. Border encroachment, including Kalapani and Sustha in Nepal-side are widely practiced and condemned time and again. India’s construction of road and dam in no man’s land at cross border of Nepal aggravates anger to Nepali horizontally and vertically. Anti-Indian sentiment among the greater populace also increased because of insecurity across the Nepalese cross border.
In regards of security concern of India, an Indian plane (IA 814) carrying 178 passengers from Kathmandu to New Delhi was hijacked by five-Kashmiri fundamentalists (militants) on December 24nd 1999 and finally landed in Khandahar, Afghanistan via Amritsar of India, Lahore of Pakistan, and Dubai. The Indian Government blamed Nepal for having security lapses. The Indian Government even suspended its flights to Nepal for six-months. And India put forward the idea of establishing its forces in Nepal, but in vein.
However, Modi’s visit and his speech are able to anatomize or erase many of these conceptions being existed in both countries.
Freedom of Constitution Writing
Before the visit of Modi, Nepali have a conception that the Constituent Assembly second (CA II) of Nepal shall unable to write the text of a New Constitution until and unless Indian establishment agrees on the issues of governance, name and number of federal states and model of elections to President and the Prime Minister and power sharing between them. Modi’s statement at the CA House empowers Nepalese leaders to write a New Constitution themselves using their conscience freely.
Mr.Modi at House of Lawmakers said, “Nepal’s Constitution would set an example for the whole world, especially to strife-torn regions, as a model for leaving the path of violence, and how a peaceful and democratic process can help achieve goals”. He stated that India respects the Federal Democratic Republic and inclusive Constitution. He congratulated Nepal for choosing ballot over bullet referring to the Maoists. The United Communist Party of Nepal (UCPN)-Maoist abandoned the violence and joined the peaceful mainstream politics through the Comprehensive Peace Accord on November 2006. An year ago, in November 2005, 12-point understanding was signed among the Seven Party Alliance and the Maoists on the mediation of India in New Delhi.
Modi became the first Head of State who addressed at the CA II after restoration of democracy in 1990 and urged the political leaders to use Rishi-Munis (sages) soul and mind on the course to draft the statute with 100 years envisions uniting and integrating all parts of the society and geography. The mind of a sage requires which can see far, anticipate problems and take society forward. He said, “Your heart should be of Sage to draft a constitution. You are making the constitution which is not merely for the citizens of Nepal”.
Besides to draft constitutional provisions with rights of different sections of society, Modi further encouraged lawmakers stating that Constitution of Nepal should be a document like Samhita of Vedas and Upanishads that should define a new direction for the country. He said, “The Constitution of Nepal would inspire the hopes and dreams of not just the people of Nepal, but the entire world” The New Constitution unites, does not divide “Sarvjan Hitay, Sarvjan Sukhay” (for wellbeing of all, for happiness of all), the Prime Minister said. Modi also gave an example of the Indian Constitution, which unites different parts, diversities of society of India, uniting more than one billion Indians hopes and expectations.
India drafted the New Constitution through 389 members of the Constituent Assembly on the basis of one representative for roughly one million of its population by the newly elected legislative assemblies of the provinces with some reservations to Sikh and Muslim minorities instead of 601 Constituent Assembly first (CA I) and CA II members in the case of Nepal. India’s Constitution is still applicable to unite and integrate a diverse society and its larger socio-cultural infrastructure.
In Nepal, the CA I (2008-2012) and CA II (2013-) became no more than a ‘Job-House’ to 601 legislators (leaders and their activists). The issues of statute drafting could not be introduced even into the CA I for its discussion and endorsement. The Constitution making was largely centered with a half dozen of top leaders of the mainstream parties. It is to be remarkable that people particularly at community levels were victimized by the People’s War during the armed conflict (1996-2006), but now in the name of concluding the peace process writing the Constitution of Federal Republic of Nepal.
The previous Government of India played a significant role to crane Dr. Baburam Bhattarai into the Prime Minister’s seat amalgamating the socio-cultural groups of Tarai-Madhes into the Maoists-fold providing hefty sum of money. The Publisher of the Sampurna Maya monthly magazine Sandeep Mitra in New Delhi on February 13th 2012 asked the Congress leader, “You said that you are against the Maoist Government in Nepal, but why did you invest IRs 77 crore to form a new Government under the leadership of Bhattarai uniting the Tarai-Madhes forces?” The answer, “It was decided by the top that was behind of my capacity.” Great majority of Nepalese believe that the CA I was finally scraped by the same Bhattarai Government on the advice of India in March 2013. The major purpose of India was to weaken the Maoist party defaming Bhattarai who was popular in Nepal before take oath of office as the PM. Moreover, the Maoists were finally split into the UCPN and CPN-Maoist under the international conspiracy theory.
Freedom to Review Treaty
The Article 10 of the Nepo-India Peace and Friendship Treaty (NIPFT) 1950 said, “This Treaty shall remain in force until it is terminated by either party by giving one year's notice”. But none of the previous Government of Nepal except former Prime Ministers Manmohan Adhikari and Prachanda tried to open this provision despite of huge public demand and pressure. Both Adhikari and Prachanda who voiced to review or repel or sign a new treaty could not run their governments more than 9 months. However, Modi’s lecture and statement provides the freedom to review treaty respecting the voices of Nepalese people. The number 11 of the Joint Press Statement on the Official Visit of PM Modi to Nepal said, “The two Prime Ministers agreed to review, adjust and update the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1950….”.
The NIPFT established a close physical and socio-cultural infrastructures and strategic relations between the giant India and small Nepal. The treaty was signed at Kathmandu on July 31st 1950 by the Prime Minister of Nepal Mohun Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana and Indian Ambassador to Nepal, Chadreshwar Narain Prasad Singh. Even though, it was signed between two unequal protocols, it was named the peace and friendship treaty. Former Indian Ambassador K V Rajan accepts, "a disrespect for protocol which added insult to Kathmandu’s sense of injury in the last days of his discredited regime". Moreover, the Rana autocratic regime agreed to sign the treaty while they were almost ousting from the Government due to incipient democratic movement under the tripartite India, monarch and Nepali Congress leaderships. One-sided belief of Rana was that Government would be protected and democratic movement would be minimized after signing of such Indian drafted and favored treaty. The treaty was protested by Dr. K I Singh and his associates where he was taken into custody for 6 months, but escaped and flew to China. The 1950 treaty provided Indian military and economic assistance to Nepal. Consequently two countries decided to establish border check-posts along Nepal’s border with Tibet to gather intelligence in 1951.
The rise of Communist Government and extension of China’s power to Tibet heightened the security concerns of India. India compelled the Government of Nepal to step up military-intelligence cooperation in 1952 under 1950 treaty against the newly born communist movement in Nepal. India sent a military mission to Nepal to train, modernize, and empower the Nepali Army. Nepal downgraded the Indian military mission whilst the Nepo-China trade agreement was held in 1956. The cut-down of military power in Nepal agitated India against Nepal’s monarch and that anonymity continued till the Royal Palace Massacre happened in June 1, 2001 where the King Birendra, Queen, Crown Prince, Prince and Princess were assassinated. The anti-Indian sentiment in track II and III further intensified after that massacre. The “zone of peace” proposal put forwarded by the former King Birendra was refuted by India while the former demanded that Sikkim was a greater annexation of Nepal. That statement came immediately after Sikkim merged into India in 1975.
Maoists forwarded demands including to abrogate Nepal India Treaty 1950 and all other unequal agreements, scrape Integrated Mahakali Treaty, regulate the open border between Nepal and India and prohibit entry of Indian number-plate vehicles and others.
Freedom of One-Nepal
To proliferate the People’s War (1996-2006), the Maoist leadership tried hard to attract the disadvantaged, marginalized, and vulnerable community into the armed conflict sloganeering autonomous identity-and-cultural-based federal states to fight against the kingdom and state machineries. While the Maoists deviated from its autonomous axis after peace accord 2006, the socio-cultural groups cashed the Maoists demand and initiated the protest movement across the nation. All conscious Nepali had a fear that whether the Nepal would be seceded. Modi’s speech of integrated without socio-cultural erosion Nepal increases a hope of free and united (one) Nepal.
More than 125 castes and ethnicites generally reside in three tiers of geography: Himal (Mountain), Pahad (Hill) and Tarai-flat land. People also divide into two, Pahade and Madhesi. The former generally lives in mountain and hill, but later into the Tarai-Madhes. Prior to wrapping up Modi’s two days visit in Nepal, he met with the leaders of socio-cultural Madhesi groups including the Madhesi People’s Rights Forum (MPRF), Tarai-Madhes Democratic Party (TMDP), TMDP-Nepal, Sadbhawana Party, and Federal Sadbhawana Socialist Party. The talks initiated with some introductions and information about Modi’s visit. Madhesi leaders were not happy with his address delivered at the Legislative Parliament while he talked on Tarai, but did not utter a word of Madhes and Madhesi.
Modi replied that he knows only one Nepal, where there is Himal, Pahad and Tarai, nothing else. Modi further said, “I am in favor of Nepal's overall benefit…it is none of my business to know who liked my speech and who did not…whatever I had to say I said that…it is up to a person to decide…”. “We are here to support the entire nation…We cannot extend our support in a fragmented manner…you make your own arrangement for this", replied by Modi in one question. Modi stressed Nepal as a Himal, Pahad and Tarai flower-bouquet. He also put forward the mantra of sarvajan hitaya and sarbajan sukhaya (for the benefit, welfare and happiness to all) and gets rid of anti-Pahade mindset to the Madhesi leaders. Even though, Madhesi leaders request Modi to support them for their empowerment.
Thus, Modi tried to call for a united and integrated Nepal “unity in diversities” where all caste, ethnicity, creed, color, profession, gender, and cultural people can reside, exchange and share, and participate with their grievances and happiness freely. His statement is no less than “Nepal is a common garden of all flowers, flora and fauna, and mosaic sangrila”. Modi doctrine shall play a significant role for “One Nepal” in the long run.
Freedom of Bullet to Ballot
PM Modi addressing a Red Fort in New Delhi during 68th anniversary of the India’s Independence Day on August 15, 2014 stated that he had gone to Nepal recently which has drawn the attention of the whole world. He praised and presented Nepal as the best example of moving from the weapons to the books (bullets to the ballots) that could provide inspiration to the youngsters in the world to abandon the path of violence and follow the path of Buddha, the non-violence.
A total of 17,700 people were extrajudicially killed during a decade old People’s War in Nepal. There is no account of arbitrary arrest and detention, torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment. More than 1,250 people were involuntarily disappeared or abducted and their whereabouts is still not known. The Truth-Reconciliation and Disappearance Commissions could not be formed yet, but the Comprehensive Peace Accord 2006 agreed to complete the study within two months. The article 5.1.3 of the CPA said, “Both sides agree to make public the information about the real name, surname, and address of the people who were disappeared by both sides and who were killed during the war and to inform also the family about it within 60 days from the date on which this Accord has been signed”.
The armed conflict has adversely destroyed the culture of Nepal. The reculturation process through Disarmament (D), Demobilization (D), Reinsertion (R), Repatriation (R), Resettlement (R), Rehabilitation (R), Reconciliation (R) and Reintegration (R) (D2R6) could not be implemented even after near about decade of peace accord.
The disarmament and demobilization to the Maoist ex-combatants implemented fully, but reintegration either into the state security forces or society succeeded partly. A total of 3,123 (9.6%) out of 32,500 ex-combatants registered at main-and-satellite cantonments were just (re)integrated into the Nepal Army. Moreover, that was not (re)integration. It followed all standards of recruitment of the Nepal Army. Moreover, the (re)integration process did not follow true measures, for instance recognition of identity of ex-combatants that had practiced in the world. While large numbers of disqualified ex-combatants could not be reintegrated into the society, the clouds of endangers by bullets are likely in the near future in Nepal.
Freedom of Coexistence
In the past, India largely depends with bureaucratic approach to look upon Nepal. Nepal’s political leaders tried hard to win mind and muscle of India’s bureaucrats and RAW agents to fulfill their personal and family’s zest and zeal. Another is that wrong reporting to Indian leadership by them always put Nepal’s desire, sentiment, and demand into shadow. Thus, Nepal’s agenda could not put on right track at political discussion in India and Bureaucracy and RAW exaggerate their security concerns or weakness to put Nepal into their fold rather than sovereign nation. Modi opened his eyes to see Nepal directly minimizing the roles of his staffs. This may be the reason that the British-Gurkha bonds. Prasant Jha writes:
“Almost a decade and a half back, in a conversation, the then PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s Principal Secretary Brajesh Mishra flagged security concerns. His counterpart, Hari Sharma who was G P Koirala’s PS, turned to him and said, “Brajeshji, during Kargil, how many bodies came to your village? Four came to mine and six came to Ambassador Chakra Bastola’s village.” Mishra went silent”.
Regarding the bravery of Nepalese youths, Modi remembered what the former Indian Army Chief of Staff Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw once said "If a man says he is not afraid of dying, he is either lying or is a Gurkha." Modi’s speech provides hope to all Nepali. Modi addressed “I came to visit Nepal immediately after being elected to the Prime Minister as relation with Nepal is a high priority of my government”. Modi now wants to engage Nepal into its security concerns and coexists without humiliating Nepal’s leaders, Government, security agencies, and people in general. Modi initiates his right move to Nepal. Nepal’s concerns such as border security, worker security, treaty revision, flood control and dam inundation, and exchange and sharing are to be addressed positively. Nepal’s people wait to see, ‘how Nepalese leader can cash this opportunity of co-existence applying their ability, honesty, and commitment focusing to the nation and people’.
Freedom of Development
Modi tried to address the trust deficit existing between the two countries on hydropower cooperation as Pancheswor Multipurpose Project (PMP) could not be made such as long time. The PMP is a bi-national hydropower project to be developed in Mahakali River at Nepo-India border. Development of PMP is a mutual interest project of both countries. And Pancheswor is covered under integrated Mahakali Treaty signed in February 1996 under the leadership of the then PM Sher Bahadur Deuba. The fear widely persists horizontally and vertically whether the India wants to reserve hydropower not to compliance the treaty or agreement. The reservation on hydropower means none of the foreign countries could invest their currency. However, Modi vowed to initiate Pancheswor within a year.
Modi briefly explained the potential of Nepal's tourism, herbal products (biodiversity), hydropower, and organic farming and expressed his firm commitment to support these areas working together with Nepal. India would help Nepal emerge as a major exporter of herbal medicines in future. He propagated the idea of introducing the "HIT" (highways, information ways and transmission ways) for speedy economic development in Nepal. He promised to construct Mahakali Bridge, purchase of surplus electricity in future and supply of additional electricity to Nepal in recent years. He extends concessional credit facility equal to US$ 1 billion. Earlier both PM Modi and his counterpart Sushil Koirala witnessed the signing ceremony of four MoUs including setting-up of Pancheswor Project.
Whatever the Modi put forwarded the concepts of harmonious socio-cultural and co-existential relations between Nepo-India people are much appreciated by the people in all track I, II and III theoretically. Again, the implementation has been remained a major serious issue. The past has been a witness that the peaceful coexistence and harmonious and friendly relations between two nations sometimes turn to foe while the concerned bureaucrats and security personnel misinform their boss, particularly at the political level where decisions are taken accordingly. Such trends often happen by India side. The officials working in Indian Embassy in Kathmandu seem bias and they have superior complexity and Nepali officials have inferior complexity. Indian Embassy working in Kathmandu never follows protocol status.
Even for a small matter, ambassador visits office or residence of the Prime Minister, but never inform to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Kathmandu. Does Nepal’s ambassador working in New Delhi have the same access to hold meeting with Indian PM time and again? The answer is no. I have myself observed that one junior official working in Indian Embassy in Kathmandu used slang word on phone to the Secretary of Ministry in 2008 to fulfill his zest and zeal. Even the leaders of the mainstream parties are often blackmailed to work in favor of their vested interest.
Thus, Nepalese people now seek mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, compliance of full human security and genuinely follow the protocol under the dynamic leadership of PM Modi. That definitely puts the lotion to Nepalis wound from the past arrogance of Indian Embassy officials. Then Modi will be a real friend of Nepal. His doctrine of brotherhood, sisterhood, and neighborhood shall make a good history ever since.
“Over one billion Indian people would want to visit Nepal once in their lifetime to pay homage to Pashupatinath Temple and birth place of Lord Buddha”, Modi said. He addressed, “I am feeling fortunate being here as a Prime Minister. I am a Gujarati. I am here from Kashi to the feet of Pashupati Nath. This is the land where Kishori (Sita) played. I bow to King Janak. This is such a land where Lord Buddha was born”. Modi added that the relations between two Himalayas (Nepal) and Ganga (India) build connection on the hearts and a shared cultural heritage. Truly speaking, Nepo-India has special relations unlike many other independent and sovereign countries have. Both countries have socio-cultural and linguistic similarity.
India is the largest democratic country in the world. USA seems strong due to arms and ammunition and his forceful action against their so-called enemy, but not because of implementation of norms and principle of genuine democracy. Modi Government should cautiously work with western countries, their satellite friends, and other critical neighbors. Westerns have a policy that encircle to China to secede the Tibet and watch to Indian for not being superpower from the land of Nepal. China is still surrounded by friendly neighbors, although she has adopted the People’s democracy. But, India by competing neighbors except Bhutan in the past.
If Modi wants to be the world’s top leader, he should maximize the governance and technology and minimize the government and unhealthy competition internally. Mutual respect for equal benefit, no domination of neighbor’s independency and sovereignty, clear demarcation of territorial integrity, development cooperation to weak neighbor(s), non-aggression, and non-interference shall be the GuruMantra (vanguard of love) to Modi to spread his peaceful coexistence and friendship at the regional level. The unity among the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) is to be strengthened further at international level. Should Modi able to improve further working relation and make a close tie with China following string of pearls theory, his popularity spreads speedily all over the world. China shall also be headache free from US-political game of human rights and climbs further up towards superpower. In such case, the World Bank and United Nations shall also compel to be neutral. The Sino-India unity breaks grand design encircling to China and watch to India. And such tie ends the US empire and its satellite rule for ever.
It is to be assumed that Modi may face both internal and external human security threat. Internal security threat shall be more severe owing to accelerating 4Cs of command, commission, corruption, and criminalization; competing, covetous and power-hunger colleagues; lavish lifestyle and shaky-centrist state mechanism and its link with mafia; ignition of empire culture; and feudal-mindset mushrooming militancy being existed within India rather than external Islamist and other fundamentalists. The tight security is something to secure him and his position, but learn a lesson from Royal Palace Massacre held on June 1st 2001 in Kathmandu and assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.
The principal reason of insecurity to Modi is that he is speeding up his social doctrine to respect, protect, preserve, and promote poor, marginalized, disadvantaged, and vulnerable people, not limiting him within the border, but beyond of it. It seems that he is a hope of hopeless people despite of caste, ethnicity, creed, sex, profession, culture, color, and geography. Should Modi is able to transform his positive synergy into real practice through indirect/direct and informal/ formal procedures; he will attain the world’s top height of democracy and recognize as a role model of socialist-cum-co-existentialist leader in the universe. The true democracy will really materialize him as a pathfinder of genuine socialism to future generation. Even though, Modi is to be out from the shackles of injustice, inequality, indignity, insecurity, and inhibition circles consulting with right experts and pertinent academia. Non-listening to other means quagmire himself into dirty “demon” and “craggy” (democracy) politics similar in the past.
**** *Bishnu PATHAK is a Board Member and Professor of Human Security Studies at TRANSCEND Peace University, Germany. He, who holds a Ph.D. in Conflict Management and Human Rights, has been working at the Peace and Conflict Studies Center (PCS Center) as a President and Director. He is presently involved as a senior peace, security and human rights expert on International Evaluation of Support to the Peace Process in Nepal. He holds the Chief Coordinator of the Petition to the UN for Total Disarmament and Vice President at the Global Harmony Association. His book Politics of People’s War and Human Rights in Nepal is a widely circulated volume. His pioneer work on Peace-Conflict Lifecycle has first been published on a book in “Experiments with Peace”, Norway. He is the author of more than 150 research articles on human rights, human security, United Nations, peace, civil military relations, community policing, and federalism including Nepal’s 2008 Constituent Assembly Elections: Converting Bullets to Ballots, East-West Center Bulletin, and Washington DC. Dr. Pathak can be reached at email:firstname.lastname@example.org; www.pcsc.org.np or https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=99183428&trk=nav_responsive_tab_profile_pic
Head and other influential members in the Executive, Legislative and Judiciary including top leaders of the mainstream parties and state actors.
Civil society organizations and individuals or non-state actors which help to mitigate the conflict bridging the gap between track I and III.
General people residing in the community and society
Professor Madan Kumar Dahal uses the word in his analysis on August 4, 2014.
Lohani, Prakash Chandra. July 23, 2014. “Hopes Soar High as ‘Much Admired’ PM Modi Prepares for a Visit in Nepal”. The Himalayan Voice.
Rajan, K. V. August 12, 2014. Should the Indo-Nepal Treaty be scrapped? Online Available at http://thehimalayanvoice.blogspot.com/2014/08/should-indo-nepal-1950-treaty-be.html
Sood, Rakesh. July 23, 2014. “A New Beginning with Nepal”. The Hindu. New Delhi
Pathak, Bishnu. May 25, 2009. Nepal India Relations: Open Secret Diplomacy. Kathmandu: PCS Center.
Ministry of External Affairs. August 3, 2014. Summary of Prime Minister’s address to Constituent Assembly of Nepal (August 3, 2014). Online Available http://www.mea.gov.in/Speeches-Statements.htm?dtl/23817/Summary+of+Prime+Ministers+address+to+Constituent+Assembly+of+NepalAugust+3+2014 (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)
History of India. Online Available at http://indiansaga.com/history/postindependence/constitution.html (Retrieved on August 17, 2014)
The author was witness of the conversation while he had gone India to attend for three days (February 11-13, 2012) International Seminar on Teacher Education for Peace and Harmony, organized by the Gandhi Bidhya Mandir at Gandhidarshan, Rajghat.
Joint Press Statement on the Official Visit of the Prime Minister of India, His Excellency Shri Narendra Modi, to Nepal (August 3-4, 2014)
Rajan, K. V. August 12, 2014. Should the Indo-Nepal Treaty be scrapped? Online Available at http://thehimalayanvoice.blogspot.com/2014/08/should-indo-nepal-1950-treaty-be.html
Menon, M S N. 2002. Little Good for Nepal in India. Online available at http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020405/edit.htm#5 (Retrieved on August 11, 2014).
Pathak, Bishnu. 2005. Politics of People’s War and Human Rights in Nepal. Kathmandu: BIMIPA Publications
Telegraphnepal.com. August 5, 2014. Get rid of Anti-Pahade Mindset: PM Modi to Nepal’s Madhesi Leaders. Kathmandu
Pathak, Bishnu. May 8, 2008. “Nepal’s 2008 Constituent Assembly Elections. Converting Bullets to Ballots”. East West Center. No. 8.
Also see, Pathak, Bishnu. March 8, 2014. “Human Security and Human Rights: Harmonious to Inharmonious Relations”. Achieve of Business Research, Vo. 2. No. 1.
Pathak, Bishnu. April-June 2013. “Transformative Harmony and Inharmony in Nepal’s Peace Process”. Gandhi Marg Quarterly. 33 (1): 133-166.
For more see, Pathak, Bishnu. April-June 2013. “Transformative Harmony and Inharmony in Nepal’s Peace Process”. Gandhi Marg Quarterly, 35(1): 133-166
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas synonymous with "Nepali," which had derived from the hill-mountain district Gorkha. There are Gurkha military units in the Nepalese, British and the Indian army. Gorkhas are closely associated with the Khukuri, a forward-curving Nepalese knife and have a well known reputation for their fearless military prowess.
Jha, Prashant. August 13, 2014. “After Modi’s Nepal Visit, what changed and what did not”. Hindustan Times. New Delhi.
Online Available at http://www.pmp.gov.np/ (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)
Gir, Anil. December 12, 2012. Prez, PM, top leaders breached protocol. Kathmandu: www.ekantipur.com
The socialist advocates for human secuirity that ensures fundamental freedom, universal welfare state, collective bargaining, rights of co-determination, representative democracy, and partnership. For more see, Pathak, Bishnu. October 1, 2013. Origin and Development of Human Security. In International Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences Vol. 1 (9), pp. 168-187. And Pathak, Bishnu. March 8, 2014. Human Security and Human Rights: Harmonious to Inharmonious Relations. In Achieve of Business Research. Vol. 2, No. 1. UK: Society for Science and Education.
The existential attitude fullfils towards the complianc of human security through love, empathy, justice, fraternity, and happiness. For more see, Ibid.